For preserving biological diversity and for ensuring the favorable status of threatened species and habitats, 19,6% of Estonia's land area and 28,4% of the water area has been taken under protection.
Estonia has a total of 4,331 protected natural objects including:
- 6 national parks;
- 238 nature reserves;
- 147 landscape protection areas (nature parks);
- 452 parks and stands;
- 311 limited-conservation areas;
- 1,929 species’ protection sites;
- 125 spawning sites and habitats;
- 1,087 individual protected natural objects;
- 24 natural objects protected at the local government level;
- 12 protected areas with old protection regulation.
The western capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus). Photo by Jaanus Tanilsoo