For preserving biological diversity and for ensuring the favorable status of threatened species and habitats, 18,8% of Estonia's land area and 28% of the water area has been taken under protection.
Estonia has a total of 3,946 protected natural objects including:
- 6 national parks;
- 231 nature reserves;
- 156 landscape protection areas (nature parks);
- 471 parks and stands;
- 319 limited-conservation areas;
- 1,633 species’ protection sites;
- 1,076 individual protected natural objects;
- 22 natural objects protected at the local government level;
- 38 protected areas with old protection regulation.
The western capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus). Photo by Jaanus Tanilsoo